Oil and Gas
What Is Luster? Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
Crystal Habit is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
Sand is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Fiore Island Sol Polarized and Non-Polarized Sunglasses Rimless - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
Tallest Tsunami - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Geology Tools Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Ticks are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Hawaii*s Next Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
The Science of Fireworks Learn how the colors and shapes are created.
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
8 Notes 6 Inches Lomuty Lotus Steel Drum Percussion Instrument H - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Clarks Women's P-Berry Loafer Flat software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
Copper Kills COVID-19 and many other pathogens to limit the spread of disease.
Methane Hydrate deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Gemstones - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Petrified Wood is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Cinder Cones are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
Rock Salt is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
10 Gemmy Facts About Spinel - Is spinel the world*s most overlooked gem?
Coal Through a Microscope - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Horizontal Drilling has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Chalk is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Extraterrestrial Gems - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
The Uses of Marble are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Pyroxene Minerals are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.